The Thorium Lead Dating Method

 

By Paul Nethercott

September 2012

 

How reliable is radiometric dating? We are repeatedly told that it proves the Earth to be billions of years old. If radiometric dating is reliable then it should not contradict the evolutionary model. According to the Big Bang theory the age of the Universe is 10 to 15 billion years.1 Standard evolutionist publications give the age of the universe as 13.75 Billion years. 2, 3

 

Standard evolutionist geology views the Earth as being 4.5 billion years old. Here are some quotes from popular text: “The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years.” 4 The Solar System, formed between 4.53 and 4.58 billion years ago.” 1 “The age of 4.54 billion years found for the Solar System and Earth.” 1 “A valid age for the Earth of 4.55 billion years.” 5, 6

 

If we use the computer program Isoplot 7 and calculate the ages of the isoptopic ratios in geology magazine articles we see why not dates have been put beside them. Many dates are negative or older than the age of the universe. That is logically impossible. How can the rock have formed millions of years in the future? The dating methods contradict each other and give ages that disagree with the Geological Column.

 

How can Earth rocks be dated as being older than the Big Bang? Here are dates calculated from several articles taken from major geology magazines which give absolutely absurd dates.

 

Tracing the Indian Ocean Mantle

These samples were dated in 1998 by scientists from the School Of Ocean And Earth Science And Technology, University Of Hawaii, Honolulu. According to this article the samples were taken from volcanic material that is only 100 million years old.8 If we put isotopic ratios 9 into Microsoft Excel and run the through Isoplot we find the average age is almost 17 billion years old. In Table 2 we see some fantastic dates.

 

Average

16,890

Maximum

82,561

Minimum

1,139

Difference

81,422

Table 1

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Million Years

Million Years

Million Years

Million Years

82,561

27,364

17,662

10,728

52,909

27,241

15,723

9,986

51,126

25,102

15,132

9,570

39,277

24,925

15,032

9,354

37,502

23,860

14,950

9,331

35,301

23,310

14,699

9,290

31,541

21,943

14,232

9,141

30,608

20,266

13,778

6,929

28,811

20,144

13,276

6,663

28,284

19,005

12,140

6,590

27,460

18,674

11,754

6,505

Table 2

 

 

Petrogenesis of the Flood Basalts

These samples were dated in 1998 by scientists from the Department Of Earth, Atmospheric And Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology. According to this article the samples were taken from the volcanic crust of the Kerguelen Archipelago that is only 30 million years old.10 If we put isotopic ratios 11 into Microsoft Excel and run the through Isoplot we find the average age of Mount Bureau is over 5 billion years old. In Table 3 we see some fantastic dates for both mountains.

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Mount Bureau

Mount Rabouillere

44,378

7,788

9,092

7,518

8,651

7,416

8,624

6,560

8,144

6,422

8,142

6,328

8,023

6,216

7,507

5,966

7,245

4,406

7,046

2,799

6,961

 

6,548

 

5,787

 

5,773

 

5,639

 

5,613

 

5,107

 

Table 3

 

 

Nature of the Source Regions

These samples were dated in 2004 by scientists from the Department Of Earth Sciences, The Open University, England. According to the article: “Most samples are Miocene in age, ranging from 10 to 25Ma in the south and 19Ma to the present day in northern Tibet.”12, 13 If we run the 87Rb/86Sr ratios 14 in the essay through Isoplot we get dates between 1 and 24 million years.  If we run the Uranium/Lead ratios 15 in the essay through Isoplot we get unbelievable dates as listed below in Table 4.

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

North Tibet

South Tibet

Age

Age

88,294

33,191

81,614

25,015

13,475

11,102

11,504

9,265

11,420

8,205

11,350

6,092

 

4,826

Table 4

Generation of Palaeocene Adakitic Andesites

These samples were dated in 2007 by scientists from the Chinese Academy Of Sciences, Wushan, Guangzhou.

According to the article: “The initial Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios were corrected using the Ar/Ar age of 55Ma.”16, 17 If we run the Uranium/Lead ratios 18 in the essay through Isoplot we get unbelievable dates as listed below in Table 5.

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Sample

208Pb/232Th

04YJ-6

10,518

04YJ-5

10,277

04YJ-9

8,529

04YJ-7

8,360

04YJ-1

8,165

04YJ-2

7,800

Table 5

 

 

Evidence for a Widespread Tethyan Upper Mantle

In 2005 scientists from the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu dated these rocks. According to the article: “Isotopic data for such sites show that mantle similar to that beneath the modern Indian Ocean was present, at least in places, as long ago as 140 Ma, the age of the oldest true Indian Ocean crust yet sampled.” 19, 20 If we run the Rb/Sr ratios 21 through Isoplot we see that the average age is 168 million years. [Table 6]

 

Rb/Sr Ages Summary

Average

168

Maximum

1,739

Minimum

0

Difference

1,739

Table 6

 

If we run the Pb/Th ratios 22 through Isoplot we see that the average age is 22,675 million years. [Table 7]

 

Pb/Th Ages Summary

Maximum

Minimum

Difference

Average

58,795

4,869

53,926

22,675

Table 7

 

 


 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

58,796

29,705

18,607

11,427

54,206

27,710

18,121

11,377

48,252

27,422

17,797

11,366

47,976

26,674

17,787

11,241

46,117

26,369

17,591

10,718

42,203

25,972

17,536

10,699

42,192

25,590

17,054

10,699

41,604

25,096

16,053

10,300

41,343

24,010

15,299

9,357

41,231

22,718

14,340

8,632

39,637

22,307

13,845

8,486

38,125

22,228

13,772

8,057

37,115

21,827

13,652

6,497

35,012

21,560

13,404

5,573

33,584

19,910

13,403

5,425

31,556

19,594

13,006

4,869

31,286

19,148

12,171

 

30,740

18,765

11,540

 

Table 8

 

 

Post-Collisional Potassic and Ultrapotassic

According to the article: “Major and trace element, Sr–Nd–Pb–O isotope and mineral chemical data are presented for post-collisional ultrapotassic, silicic and high-K calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from SW Tibet, with 40Ar/39Ar ages in the range 17–25 Ma.” 23, 24 If we run the Rb/Sr ratios 25 through Isoplot we see that the average age is 43 million years. [Table 9]

 

Rb/Sr Ages Summary

Average

43

Maximum

1,258

Minimum

-1,439

Difference

2,697

Table 9

 

If we run the Pb/Th ratios 26 through Isoplot we see that the average age is 78,808 million years. [Table 10]

 

Pb/Th Ages Summary

Maximum

Minimum

Difference

Average

99,275

67,704

31,570

78,808

Table 10

 

 

In Table 11 we see a comparison between the model age [“True Age”] and the isotopic age derived from atomic ratios. We can see how far in error the Thorium dating system is.

 

 

208Pb/232Th Ages

Age

Model Age

68,343

43

67,704

43

70,277

43

71,706

43

95,541

43

99,275

43

Table 11

 

Continental Lithospheric Contribution to Alkaline

According to the article: "These two genetically related alkaline complexes were emplaced at the east Atlantic continent-ocean boundary during the Upper Cretaceous, i.e. 66-72 m. y. ago" 27  If we run the Rb/Sr ratios 28 through Isoplot we see that the average age is 65 million years. [Table 9]

 

Rb/Sr Ages Summary

Average

65

Maximum

74

Minimum

4

Difference

78

Table 12

 

If we run the Pb/Th ratios 28 through Isoplot we see that the average age is 6,126 million years. [Table 13]

 

 

Pb/Th Ages Summary

Maximum

Minimum

Difference

Average

10,084

2,616

7,467

6,126

Table 13

 

208Pb/232Th Ages

Age

Model Age

208Pb/232Th

Million Years

10,084

66

9,320

66

8,101

66

7,502

66

7,080

66

6,891

66

6,655

66

6,313

66

5,830

66

5,755

66

5,029

66

Table 14

 

 

 

Pin Pricking The Elephant

According to tables 29 in the article, the rock formation is only 120 million years old. If we run the 207Pb/206Pb ratios 30 through Isoplot we get an average age of 5,000 million years. If we run the Pb/Th ratios 31 through Isoplot we see in Table 15 that the age is between 12 billion and 14 billion years old.

 

208Pb/232Th Ages

Pb/Pb Age

5,379

5,385

5,000

Pb/Th Age

12,090

12,845

14,459

Pb/U Age

4,579

5,498

6,936

Table 15

 

Chronology And Geochemistry Of Lavas

According to the article: “New 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating age determinations for dredged rocks from volcanoes east of Salas y Gomez Island show that, with very few exceptions, ages increase steadily to the east from 1.4 to 30 Ma” 32  Tables 33 in the article affirms this as the true age of the geological formation. 33 If we run the Pb/Th ratios 34 through Isoplot we see that the average age is 8,325 million years. [Table 16] In Table 17 we see some of the incredible dates all the way from 5 billion to almost 24 billion years old.

 

Pb/Th Ages Summary

Chronology

207Pb/206Pb

206Pb/238U

208Pb/232Th

Summary

Age

Age

Age

Average

4,919

3,694

8,325

Maximum

4,971

9,645

23,850

Minimum

4,881

1,166

4,129

Difference

90

8,479

19,720

Table 16

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Age

Age

23,850

6,498

16,942

6,421

15,364

6,396

13,004

6,298

9,061

6,245

8,393

5,896

7,654

5,848

7,599

5,754

7,101

5,453

7,054

5,446

6,607

 

Table 17

 

Ion Microprobe U-Th-Pb Dating

According to the article: “The formation age of this meteorite is 1.53 ± 0.46 Ga. On the other hand, the data of nine apatite grains from Lafayette are well represented by planar regression rather than linear regression, indicating that its formation age is 1.15 ± 0.34 Ga” 35  If we run the Pb/Th ratios 36 through Isoplot we see that the average age is 20,409 million years. [Table 18] In Table 19 we see some of the incredible dates all the way from 7 billion to over 40 billion years old.

 

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Chronological

238U/206Pb

Th232/Pb208

Pb207/Pb206

Summary

Age

Age

Age

Average

4,416

20,409

4,768

Maximum

8,975

40,271

5,348

Minimum

1,245

7,426

3,897

Standard Dev

2,023

9,101

337

Table 18

 

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Age

Age

40,271

17,062

38,926

16,516

29,016

15,349

28,642

13,929

26,241

13,153

24,801

12,380

23,510

11,689

21,169

11,334

18,374

7,426

17,980

 

Table 19

 

 

U–Th–Pb Dating Of Secondary Minerals

This dating was done in 2008 on minerals from Yucca Mountain, Nevada. It was done by scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado, the Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario and the Research School of Earth Sciences and Planetary Science Institute, The Australian National University. According to the article: “Most 206Pb/238U ages determined for the calcite subsamples are much older than the 12.8-Ma age of the host tuff (Table 3 and Fig. 5) and thus unreasonable.37 If we run the Pb/Th ratios 38 through Isoplot we see that the average age is 10,000 million years [Table 19]. The Rb/Sr ratios 39 gave a uniform result of 11 to 13 million years old [Table 19].

 

208Pb/232Th Ages Versus Rb/Sr Ages

Chronological

207Pb/206Pb

206Pb/238U

208Pb/232Th

87Rb/86Sr

Summary

Age

Age

Age

Age

Average

3,459

4,891

9,984

12

Maximum

8,126

31,193

352,962

13

Minimum

-445

1

2

11

Difference

8,571

31,192

352,960

2

Table 20

 

Another set of dates 40 in the essay [Table 20] give dates as high as 82 billion years old.

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Summary

206Pb/238U

207Pb/235U

208Pb/232Th

Average

1,540

46

7,687

Maximum

20,209

486

82,030

Minimum

1

0

3

Difference

20,208

486

82,027

Table 21

 

 

The Influence of High U-Th Inclusions

This dating was done in 1998 by scientists from Zurich, Switzerland. According to the article: “The U-Th-Pb data from the bulk dissolutions are highly complex and yield apparent ages ranging from 1000 Ma to 30 Ma.” 41  

If we run the Pb/Th ratios 42 through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from 300 to over 14,000 million years old [Table 21].

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Dating

206Pb/238U

208Pb/232Th

Pb207/Pb206

Summary

Age

Age

Ages

Average

5,342

3,579

4,709

Maximum

29,040

14,316

5,000

Minimum

270

288

3,924

Std Deviation

9,042

5,192

368

Table 22

 

 

If we run another set of Pb/Th ratios 43 through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from 160 to over 37,000 million years old [Table 22].

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Dating

206Pb/238U

208Pb/232Th

Pb207/Pb206

Summary

Age

Age

Ages

Average

1,621

4,084

4,180

Maximum

14,008

37,154

5,042

Minimum

177

161

1,325

Std Deviation

3,931

11,000

1,386

Table 23

 

 

U, Th And Pb Isotope Compositions

These samples were dated in 2009 by scientists from the Arthur Holmes Isotope Geology Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University. 44 According to the article: “Detailed petrographic and geochemical descriptions of the samples presented here can be found elsewhere” 45 If we examine what these other people 46-49 have said about the same rock formation the consensus is that it is three million years old.

If we run the Pb/Th ratios 50 through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from 2,000 to over 92,000 million years old [Table 23].

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Dating

232Th/208Pb

238U/206Pb

207Pb/206Pb

Summary

Age

Age

Age

Average

8,097

4,271

4,915

Maximum

92,495

18,639

5,008

Minimum

1,939

1,437

4,871

Difference

90,556

17,202

137

Table 24

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

232Th/208Pb

238U/206Pb

207Pb/206Pb

Age

Age

Age

92,495

18,639

5,008

73,503

15,307

5,001

42,038

10,772

5,000

29,253

10,312

4,996

13,018

9,291

4,984

10,956

5,625

4,964

10,621

4,508

4,959

10,022

3,767

4,949

Table 25

 

 

U–Th–Pb Isotope Data

According to the article: “In contrast to the apparent 207Pb–206Pb ages, the minimum depositional age of the Warrawoona Group is 3,426Ma based on a U–Pb zircon age from the Panorama Formation.” 51 If we run the Pb/Th ratios 52 through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from 25,000 to over 100,000 million years old [Table 25]. In Table 26 we can see the maximum ages for each dating method.

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Dating

207Pb/206Pb

206/Pb/238U

208Pb/232Th

Summary

Age

Age

Age

Average

5,325

15,192

56,976

Maximum

5,403

31,005

100,601

Minimum

5,222

7,138

24,980

Std Deviation

52

6,421

22,417

Table 26

 

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

207Pb/206Pb

206Pb/238U

208Pb/232Th

Age

Age

Age

5403

31,005

100,601

5395

20,343

84,457

5390

19,584

73,968

5351

17,306

67,423

5339

17,088

58,353

5332

13,410

57,116

5328

13,022

55,311

5315

11,479

51,607

5298

11,353

44,439

5296

10,652

39,090

5289

9,926

26,361

5269

7,138

24,980

Table 27

 

 

Evolution Of Reunion Hotspot Mantle

According to the article: “In the same context, the Trend 1 data imply that (1) the isotopic composition of the Reunion end-member has changed relatively little in the last 66 m.y.” 53 If we run the Pb/Th ratios 54 through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from 5,000 to over 13,000 million years old [Table 27]. In Table 28 we can see the maximum ages for the Thorium/Lead dating method.

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Dating

238U/206Pb

232Th/208Pb

207Pb/206Pb

Summary

Age

Age

Age

Average

4,449

8,079

4,976

Maximum

6,285

13,287

5,016

Minimum

3,010

5,641

4,953

Std Deviation

916

2,086

18

Table 28

 

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

13,287

8,725

7,363

6,540

11,832

8,609

7,362

6,479

11,017

7,541

7,080

6,323

10,357

7,517

7,017

5,660

9,101

7,446

6,679

5,641

Table 29

 

 

Continental Growth 3.2 Gyr Ago

According to the article the rock formation is 3,200 million years old. 55 If we run the Pb/Th ratios 55 through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from negative 24,000 to over 11,000 million years old [Table 29]. In Table 30 we can see the maximum ages for the Thorium/Lead dating method.

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Summary

208Pb/232Th

238U/206Pb

207Pb/206Pb

Average

3,273

3,300

3,296

Maximum

11,517

4,463

3,897

Minimum

-24,295

1,560

2,667

Difference

35,813

2,902

1,229

Table 30

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

Age

11,517

5,322

5,083

4,668

4,601

6,027

5,289

4,776

4,662

-366

5,806

5,130

4,709

4,638

-2,485

5,704

5,095

4,704

4,614

-24,295

5,568

5,085

4,690

4,610

-24,295

Table 31

 

 

Uranium-Lead Zircon Ages

If we run the Pb/Th ratios 56 through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from 6,000 to over 55,000 million years old [Table 31]. In Table 32 we can see the maximum ages for each dating method.

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Dating

206Pb/238U

208Pb/232Th

207Pb/206Pb

Summary

Age

Age

Age

Average

11,159

17,193

4,933

Maximum

23,421

55,110

4,997

Minimum

3,108

6,130

4,799

Std Deviation

6,223

13,524

59

Table 32

 

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

206Pb/238U

208Pb/232Th

207Pb/206Pb

Age

Age

Age

23,421

55,110

4,997

20,387

29,742

4,991

18,909

27,889

4,981

17,143

27,051

4,976

16,784

21,318

4,972

15,320

19,224

4,969

12,851

18,091

4,965

12,012

17,944

4,957

10,579

16,474

4,953

9,677

15,059

4,949

9,424

14,779

4,947

9,099

13,374

4,945

9,044

11,951

4,925

8,094

10,783

4,921

6,776

9,336

4,915

5,719

8,644

4,910

5,500

8,058

4,892

Table 33

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

55,110

19,224

14,779

8,644

29,742

18,091

13,374

8,058

27,889

17,944

11,951

6,721

27,051

16,474

10,783

6,185

21,318

15,059

9,336

6,130

Table 34

 

 

 

 

The Pilbara Craton in Western Australia

According to the article the rock formation is 3,200 million years old. 57 If we run the Pb/Th ratios 58 through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from 2,000 to over 8,000 million years old [Table 34]. In Table 35 we can see the maximum ages for the Thorium/Lead dating method.

 

Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Average

4,853

Maximum

8,728

Minimum

2,792

Std Deviation

1,040

Table 35

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

Age

8,728

6,241

5,721

5,430

5,058

8,296

6,191

5,643

5,417

5,042

7,017

6,076

5,578

5,288

5,032

6,433

5,786

5,533

5,171

5,027

6,431

5,759

5,522

5,138

4,999

Table 36

 

 

If we run another set of Pb/Th ratios 59 through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from 500 to over 17,000 million years old [Table 36]. In Table 37 we can see the maximum ages for the Thorium/Lead dating method.

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Dating

207Pb/235U

206Pb/238U

208Pb/232Th

Summary

Age

Age

Age

Average

2,955

2,956

6,286

Maximum

4,220

8,073

17,500

Minimum

1,921

1,074

535

Std Deviation

392

1,019

3,196

Table 37

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

17,500

8,891

7,493

5,743

13,259

8,768

7,443

5,594

13,100

8,689

7,368

5,512

12,821

8,343

7,343

5,512

12,662

8,320

7,240

5,455

12,212

8,247

7,192

5,432

11,163

8,232

7,148

5,255

10,959

8,197

7,047

5,253

10,783

8,064

6,478

5,229

10,668

8,013

6,270

5,154

10,384

7,949

6,199

5,148

9,945

7,947

6,152

5,135

9,580

7,861

6,083

5,115

9,124

7,702

6,052

5,047

8,908

7,692

5,885

5,033

8,905

7,612

5,803

4,889

Table 38

 

Timing of Sedimentation, Metamorphism, and Plutonism

According to the article the rock formation is 478 million years old. 60 If we run the Pb/Th ratios 61 through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from 500 to over 80,000 million years old [Table 38]. In Table 39 we can see the maximum ages for the Thorium/Lead dating method.

 

Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Average

19,539

Maximum

80,532

Minimum

489

Std Deviation

27,260

Table 39

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

80,532

66,448

51,879

24,604

74,016

65,076

51,751

16,809

70,713

65,000

51,545

15,748

69,057

61,342

34,766

15,365

68,831

60,335

31,045

13,384

68,503

58,364

28,397

11,945

67,672

56,792

24,733

9,477

Table 40

 

U–Th and U–Pb Systematics in Zircons

According to the article: “At Taupo, the zircon model ages range from <20 ka to >500 Ma.” 62 If we run the Pb/Th ratios 63 through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from 11,000 to over 41,000 million years old [Table 40]. In Table 41 we can see the maximum ages for the Thorium/Lead dating method.

 

Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Average

22,847

Maximum

41,460

Minimum

11,390

Std Deviation

6,191

Table 41

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

Age

41,460

26,447

23,441

21,348

18,534

34,824

25,988

23,025

20,730

18,140

33,392

25,525

22,704

19,977

17,701

29,182

24,858

22,560

19,950

17,357

29,126

24,325

22,493

19,738

16,455

28,671

24,160

22,138

19,422

16,221

27,733

23,992

21,885

19,360

15,726

27,587

23,665

21,877

19,307

15,301

26,533

23,448

21,390

19,024

11,390

Table 42

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrothermal Zebra Dolomite

According to the article the rock formation is 416 million years old. 64 If we run the Pb/Th ratios 65 through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from 6,000 to over 55,000 million years old [Table 42]. In Table 43 we can see the maximum ages for the Thorium/Lead dating method.

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Dating

Pb206/U238

Pb208/Th232

Pb207/Pb206

Summary

Age

Age

Age

Average

11,353

17,193

4,933

Maximum

23,421

55,110

4,997

Minimum

1,715

6,130

4,799

Std Deviation

5,055

11,459

53

Table 43

 

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Age

Age

55,110

14,779

29,742

13,374

27,889

11,951

27,051

10,783

21,318

9,336

19,224

8,644

18,091

8,058

17,944

6,721

16,474

6,185

15,059

6,130

Table 44

 

If we run the Pb/Th ratios 65 in the second spreadsheet table through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from 6,000 to over 270,000 million years old [Table 44]. In Table 45 we can see the maximum ages for the Thorium/Lead dating method.

 

Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Average

90,690

Maximum

277,727

Minimum

6,643

Std Deviation

47,209

Table 45

 

Thorium/Lead – Maximum Ages

Billion Years

Quantity

Billion Years

Quantity

0 To 20

2

130 To 140

6

20 To 30

1

140 To 150

6

30 To 40

22

150 To 160

2

40 To 50

19

160 To 170

6

50 To 60

33

170 To 180

1

60 To 70

17

180 To 190

5

70 To 80

23

190 To 200

1

80 To 90

18

200 To 210

3

90 To 100

14

210 To 220

1

100 To 110

18

220 To 230

2

110 To 120

21

240 To 250

1

120 To 130

13

270 To 280

2

Table 46

 

Origin of Indian Ocean Seamount Province

According to the article the rock formation is 6 million years old. 66 If we run the Pb/Th ratios 67 through Isoplot we see that the dates vary from 2,000 to over 28,000 million years old [Table 46]. In Table 47 we can see the maximum ages for the Thorium/Lead dating method.

 

Uranium/Thorium/Lead - Ages Summary

Dating

207Pb/206Pb

206Pb/238U

208Pb/232Th

Summary

Age

Age

Age

Average

5,015

5,191

7,740

Maximum

5,087