The Rubidium-Strontium Dating Method

 

By Paul Nethercott

October 2012

 

How reliable is radiometric dating? We are repeatedly told that it proves the Earth to be billions of years old. If radiometric dating is reliable than it should not contradict the evolutionary model. According to the Big Bang theory the age of the Universe is 10 to 15 billion years.1 Standard evolutionist publications give the age of the universe as 13.75 Billion years. 2, 3

 

Standard evolutionist geology views the Earth as being 4.5 billion years old. Here are some quotes from popular text: “The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years.” 4 The Solar System, formed between 4.53 and 4.58 billion years ago.” 1 “The age of 4.54 billion years found for the Solar System and Earth.” 1 “A valid age for the Earth of 4.55 billion years.” 5, 6

 

If we run the isotopic ratios give in standard geology magazines through the computer program Isoplot 7 we find that the Uranium/Thorium/Lead isotopic ratios in the rocks disagree radically with the Rubidium/Strontium ages. The U/Th/Pb ratios give ages older than the evolutionist age of the Earth, Solar System, Galaxy and Universe. How can Earth rocks be dated as being older than the Big Bang?

 

If we use isotopic formulas 8-11 given in standard geology text we can arrive at ages from the Rb/Sr and Nd/Sm ratios. The formula for Rb/Sr age is given as:

 

                  [1]

 

Where t equals the age in years. l equals the decay constant. (87Sr/86Sr) = the current isotopic ratio. (87Sr/86Sr)0 = the initial isotopic ratio. (87Rb/86Sr) = the current isotopic ratio. The same is true for the formula below.

 

 

       [2]

 

Here are examples of isotopic ratios taken from several articles in major geology magazines which give absolutely absurd dates.

 

Early Archaean Rocks At Fyfe Hills

These early Archaean rocks from Fyfe Hills in Antarctica were dated in 1982 by scientists form the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, and the University of Tasmania, Hobart. 12 Several isotopic samples 13 gave negative ages [-24 billion, -14 billion, -108 billion, -43 billion]. How can a rock that exists in the present and formed in the past have formed 108 billion years in the future?

 

87Rb/86Sr, Ages Dating Summary

Average

-3,556

Maximum

4,925

Minimum

-108,362

Difference

113,287

Table 1

 

The Uranium/Lead ratios 14 give uniform values of 2,500 million years old. The thirty 87Rb/86Sr ratios have nineteen that give ages much older [3,039 to 4,925 Million years] and seven [1,835 to -108,362 Million years] much younger. The author’s choice of age is purely arbitrary.

 

Shock-Melted Antarctic LL-Chondrites

These meteorite samples were dated in 1990 by scientists from the Department of Earth Sciences, Kohe University, Japan. 15 According to the article 16 the meteorite is 4.55 billion years old. The article claims that the maximum range of model ages is 3.11 to 7.33 billion years. 17 If we run the isotopic ratios through Microsoft Excel we get ages from 4 to 21 billion years old.  Thirty six dates are over 5 billion years. Nine are over 10 billion years. If the Solar System is less than 5 billion years old how can the meteorite be older than the assumed age of the galaxy [10 billion years]?

 

87Rb/86Sr, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Million Years

Million Years

Million Years

21,611

9,015

6,756

14,466

8,988

6,556

12,968

8,921

6,192

12,354

8,869

6,157

11,946

8,753

5,981

10,868

8,675

5,677

10,727

8,556

5,491

10,623

8,405

5,483

10,162

8,153

5,458

9,888

7,590

5,453

9,237

6,947

5,388

9,161

6,899

5,319

Table 2

 

87Rb/86Sr, Ages Dating Summary

Average

8,585

Maximum

21,611

Minimum

3,969

Difference

17,642

Table 3

 

Diamonds And Mantle-Derived Xenoliths

These samples from South African diamond mines were dated in 1979 by scientist from the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. According to the isochron diagrams 17 the age of the sample is 2.4 billion years. If we run the Lead isotope ratios 18 through Isoplot we get the following values:

 

Lead Isotope Ages

Average

4,995

Maximum

5,249

Minimum

4,885

Std Deviation

122

Table 4

 

If we run the 87Rb/86Sr isotope ratios 18 through Microsoft Excel we get the following values:

 


 

87Rb/86Sr, Ages Dating Summary

Average

28,429

Maximum

91,957

Minimum

3,257

Difference

88,700

Table 5

 

There is almost a 90 billion years difference between the oldest and youngest dates. Below we can see some of the maximum ages and how stupid they are.

 

87Rb/86Sr, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Million Years

Million Years

91,957

18,139

53,584

17,036

51,582

15,716

43,201

15,340

33,542

13,633

24,366

12,202

Table 6

 

87Rb/87Sr Isochron Of The Norton County Achondrite

This meteorite dating was done in 1967 by scientist 20 from the California Institute of Technology. In this article we will find that dating done 45 years later [2008] is giving just as absurd results. According to the Argon dating results 21 the meteorite is between 2.3 and 5.1 billion years old. If we run the 87Rb/86Sr isotope ratios 22 through Microsoft Excel we get the following values:

 

87Rb/86Sr, Ages Dating Summary

Average

1,375

Maximum

4,871

Minimum

-16,277

Difference

21,149

Table 7

 

Base and Precious Metal Veins

According to the article the dating [Coeur D’Alene Mining District, Idaho] was done in 2002 by scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, California, the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California and the Sunshine Precious Metals Company, Idaho. 22 If we run the 87Rb/86Sr isotope ratios 23 from Table 1 in the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values:

 

87Rb/86Sr, Ages Dating Summary

Average

128,708

Maximum

508,074

Minimum

7,990

Difference

516,064

Table 8

 

There is a 500 billion year difference between the youngest and oldest dates. The average age is over 120 billion years. Below we can see some of the maximum ages and how stupid they are.


87Rb/86Sr, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

Million Years

Million Years

Million Years

Million Years

508,074

157,304

125,399

86,483

314,336

151,142

114,796

75,684

302,580

150,089

114,795

72,915

287,077

149,802

113,950

71,225

207,257

144,826

111,884

69,729

201,185

142,977

110,719

63,934

191,104

138,115

109,164

63,406

190,573

134,866

108,617

61,740

189,167

134,061

108,278

56,735

186,066

134,039

102,140

52,117

183,607

132,885

99,952

47,926

183,225

132,746

93,848

46,968

163,764

131,670

89,246

39,944

158,436

130,664

88,626

37,623

158,282

129,495

87,708

16,153

Table 9

 

If we run the 87Rb/86Sr isotope ratios 24 from Table 2 in the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values:

 

87Rb/86Sr, Ages Dating Summary

Average

139,471

Maximum

508,074

Minimum

12,314

Difference

520,388

Table 10

 

There is a 520 billion year difference between the youngest and oldest dates. The average age is almost 140 billion years. Below we can see some of the maximum ages and how stupid they are. The oldest dates is over half a trillion years old.

 

87Rb/86Sr, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Million Years

Million Years

Million Years

508,074

147,429

87,708

314,336

138,882

84,716

165,542

118,679

82,294

157,714

98,450

59,080

157,589

91,450

45,663

151,317

89,236

12,314

Table 11

 

 

If we run the 87Rb/86Sr isotope ratios 25 from Table 4 in the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values:

 


 

87Rb/86Sr, Ages Dating Summary

Average

88,571

Maximum

288,775

Minimum

-170,232

Difference

459,007

Table 12

 

There is a 560 billion year difference between the youngest and oldest dates. The average age is almost 90 billion years. Below we can see some of the maximum ages and how stupid they are. The oldest date is almost 300 billion years old. The youngest is negative 170 billion years old.

 

87Rb/86Sr, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

Age

Age

Million Years

Million Years

Million Years

Million Years

Million Years

Million Years

288,775

97,242

94,819

93,079

90,891

85,924

102,716

97,117

94,465

92,995

90,700

85,805

101,380

97,033

94,453

92,972

90,536

85,263

100,277

96,792

94,431

92,967

90,367

84,990

99,779

96,687

94,408

92,963

90,127

83,914

99,683

96,655

94,397

92,915

90,089

83,584

99,369

96,602

94,345

92,878

90,018

82,639

99,238

96,293

94,339

92,863

89,838

80,962

99,177

96,252

94,249

92,829

89,736

80,214

98,948

96,236

94,235

92,634

89,466

79,082

98,765

96,043

94,139

92,630

89,236

78,053

98,736

95,981

94,100

92,374

89,171

76,750

98,685

95,894

93,928

92,315

88,932

76,256

98,591

95,761

93,841

92,309

88,876

76,178

98,436

95,711

93,766

92,205

88,540

75,048

98,285

95,609

93,730

92,140

88,295

72,004

98,243

95,522

93,582

92,108

87,585

70,479

97,979

95,510

93,574

91,906

87,359

69,790

97,830

95,388

93,504

91,674

87,260

55,157

97,628

95,218

93,401

91,650

86,826

53,568

97,604

95,197

93,394

91,435

86,691

51,934

97,545

95,185

93,271

91,238

86,474

-39,207

97,421

95,125

93,199

91,189

86,136

-89,656

97,402

94,994

93,124

91,005

86,050

-170,232

Table 13

 

The Munchberg Massif, Southern Germany

According the article, this dating was done in 1990 by scientists from the Koln University, Germany and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California. 26 There is an 8 billion year difference between the youngest and oldest dates.

 

 

 

 

87Rb/86Sr, Ages Dating Summary

Average

1,105

Maximum

7,834

Minimum

-296

Difference

8,130

Table 14

 

Rocks of the Central Wyoming Province

These rock samples were dated in 2005 by scientists from the University of Wyoming. 27 If we run the Rubidium/Strontium and Neodymium/Samarium isotope ratios 28 from the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values:

Ages Dating Summary

Dating

Age

Age

Age

Age

Age

Summary

87Rb/86Sr

147Sm/144Nd

207Pb/206Pb

208Pb/232Th

206Pb/238U

Average

2,863

2,869

5,123

17,899

11,906

Maximum

2,952

2,954

5,294

38,746

18,985

Minimum

2,630

2,631

4,662

6,650

7,294

Std Deviation

38

39

152

9,754

3,298

Table 15

 

The Uranium/Lead dates 29 are up to sixteen billion years older than the Rubidium/Strontium and Neodymium/Samarium dates. The Thorium/Lead dates are up to thirty six billion years older. The so called true age is just a guess.

 

Basalts From Apollo 15

According the article, this Moon rock dating was done in 1972 by scientists from the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. 30 According to the essay the rock is 3.4 billion years old. 31 If we run the 87Rb/86Sr isotope ratios 32 from Table 4 in the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values:

 

Rb/Sr Age Dating Summary

Average

3,045

Maximum

27,211

Minimum

-3,808

Difference

31,019

Table 16

 

Of the 21 isotopic ratios, seven were below 500 million years old. Two were over six billion years old.

 

 

History Of The Pasamonte Achondrite

According to the article this meteorite specimen was dated in 1977 by scientists from the United States Geological Survey, Colorado and the Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines. 33 The article states that Rubidium/Strontium dating affirms that this material is 4.5 billion years old. 34 If we run the various isotope ratios 34 from two different tables in the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 

 


 

U/Th/Pb Age Dating Summary

Summary

206Pb/238U

207Pb/235U

207Pb/206Pb

208Pb/232Th

Average

3,088

3,666

4,566

2,263

Maximum

5,694

5,032

4,963

14,800

Minimum

103

865

4,440

-10,700

Difference

5,591

4,167

523

25,500

Table 17

 

If we run the 87Rb/86Sr isotope ratios 34 from the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values:

 

Rb/Sr Age Dating Summary

Average

4,403

Maximum

6,674

Minimum

2,412

Difference

4,262

Table 18

 

The Thorium/Lead dates are up to twelve billion years older. The so called true age is just a guess.

 

Sr Isotopic Composition Of Afar Volcanics

According to the article 35 this specimen [basalts from the Afar depression in Ethiopia] was dated in 1977 by scientists from Italy and France. The article states that the formation is of the late Quaternary period and thus very young. If we run the 87Rb/86Sr isotope ratios 36 from the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values:

 

Rb/Sr Age Dating Summary

Average

183

Maximum

2,260

Minimum

-108

Difference

2,368

Table 19

 

As far as the rocks being of a Quaternary age, the dates just don’t line up.

 

Orogenic Lherzolite Complexes

According to the article 37 this specimen from Gibraltar was dated in 1979 by scientists from France. According to the article 38 the maximum age of the samples is 103 million years. If we run the 87Rb/86Sr isotope ratios 39 from the two different tables in the article [Tables 2 and 3] through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 

Rb/Sr Age Dating Summary

Summary

Table 2

Table 3

Average

-52,203

-29,099

Maximum

-2,229

-1,258

Minimum

-135,140

-102,498

Difference

132,911

101,240

Table 20

 

 

 

 

 

 

The dates are light years different from what the essay claims. They are just absurd.

 

Isotopic Geochemistry (Os, Sr, Pb)

According to the article 40 this specimen [the Golda Zuelva and Mboutou anorogenic complexes, North Cameroun] was dated in 1982 by scientists from France. According to the article 40 the maximum age of the sample is 66 million years. If we run the 87Rb/86Sr isotope ratios 41 from the two different tables in the article [Tables 1and 2] through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 

Age Dating Summary

Dating

87Rb/86Sr

87Rb/86Sr

Pb207/Pb206

Summary

Age

Age

Age

Average

321

57

4,982

Maximum

1,635

141

5,080

Minimum

52

0

4,932

Difference

1,687

141

10,012

Table 21

 

 

If we run the 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios 42 from the article [Table 3] through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 

Lead Isotope Ages

Age

Age

5,080

4,964

5,048

4,958

4,990

4,957

4,984

4,938

4,980

4,932

4,975

 

Table 22

 

The so called true age is just a guess.

 

Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Sediments

According to the article 43 this specimen [from the Barranco del Gredero, Caravaca, Spain] was dated in 1983 by scientists from University of California, Los Angeles, the United States Geological Survey, and the Geological Institute, University of Amsterdam. According to the article 44 the maximum age of the sample is 65 million years. If we run the 87Rb/86Sr isotope ratios 44 from the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 

Rb/Sr Age Dating Summary

Average

740

Maximum

5,157

Minimum

-266

Difference

5,423

Table 23

 

Out of the 16 dates derived from isotopic ratios, ten were over 100 million years old. Two were over 4 billion years old. One was negative 266 million years old. How can a rock that formed in the past have a negative age! The choice of 65 million years is just a guess.

 

Correlated N D, Sr And Pb Isotope Variation

According to the article 45 this specimen [Walvis Ridge, Walvis Bay] was dated in 1982 by scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Department of Geochemistry, University of Cape Town, South Africa. According to the article 45 the age of the sample is 70 million years. If we run the various isotope ratios 46 from the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 

Age Dating Summary

Summary

Pb207/Pb206

147Sm/144Nd

87Rb/86Sr

Average

5,033

70

64

Maximum

5,061

70

93

Minimum

5,004

69

0

Difference

57

140

93

Table 24

 

 

A Depleted Mantle Source For Kimberlites

According to the article 47 this specimen [kimberlites from Zaire] was dated in 1984 by scientists from Belgium. According to the article 48 the age of the samples is 70 million years. If we run the various isotope ratios 49 from the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 

Age Dating Summary

Summary

207Pb/206Pb

206Pb/238U

87Rb/86Sr

147Sm/144Nd

Average

4,977

4,810

86

72

Maximum

5,017

10,870

146

80

Minimum

4,909

1,391

50

63

Difference

108

9,478

196

17

Table 25

 

 

The 207Pb/206Pb maximum age is 34 times older than the 87Rb/86Sr maximum age. The 206Pb/238U maximum age is 74 times older than the 147Sm/144Nd maximum age. There is a 10.8 billion year difference between the oldest and youngest age attained.

 

 

Sm-Nd Isotopic Systematics

According to the article 50 this specimen [Enderby Land, East Antarctic] was dated in 1984 by scientists from the Australian National University, Canberra, and the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Canberra. According to the article 50 the age of the sample is 3,000 million years. If we run the Rb/Sr isotope ratios 51 from the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 

Rb/Sr Age Dating Summary

Average

-873

Maximum

3,484

Minimum

-25,121

Difference

28,605

Table 26

 

There is almost a 30 billion year difference between the oldest and youngest dates.

 


 

Strontium, Neodymium And Lead Compositions

According to the article 52 this specimen [Snake River Plain, Idaho] was dated in 1985 by scientists from the Geology Department, Rice University, Houston, Texas, the Earth Sciences Department, Open University, England and the Geology Department, Ricks College, Idaho. According to the article 52 the age of the sample is 3.4 billion years. If we run the various isotope ratios 53 from the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 

Age Dating Summary

Summary

Pb207/Pb206

Pb207/Pb206

87Rb/86Sr

Average

5,143

5,138

40,052

Maximum

5,362

5,314

205,093

Minimum

4,698

4,940

1,443

Difference

664

374

203,650

Table 27

 

The Lead isotope ratios from two different tables give dates 200 billion years younger than the Rb/Sr isotope ratios. The Average age of the Rb/Sr isotope ratios is 40 billion years. Below we can see some of the maximum ages and how stupid they are.

 

87Rb/86Sr, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Million Years

Million Years

205,093

11,974

189,521

11,908

188,777

9,960

95,450

9,101

52,643

7,124

13,119

6,022

12,220

5,089

Table 28

 

 

Trace Element And Sr And Nd Isotope

According to the article 54 this specimen [West Germany] was dated in 1986 by scientists from Germany and California. According to the article 54 the age of the samples is 2 billion years. If we run the various isotope ratios 55 from the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 

Rb/Sr Age Dating Summary

Average

41,573

Maximum

175,289

Minimum

-30,734

Difference

206,022

Table 29

 

Many of the Rb/Sr isotopic ratios would not produce proper ages. Those that did gave absurd values. Below are some dates taken from another table 56 in the original article.

 


 

Rb/Sr and Sm/Nd Age Dating Summary

TABLE 5

Sm-Nd

Rb-Sr

Sample

Age

Age

Ib/K1

2,090

2,210

Ib/8

2,900

1,790

D1

1,450

1,660

Ib/5

1,100

1,430

D45

1,630

530

D58

3,200

1,930

Table 30

 

The Southeast Australian Lithosphere Mantle

According to the article 57 this specimen was dated in 1987 by scientists from The Australian National University.  According to the article 58 the age of the samples is 1.5 billion years. If we run the various isotope ratios 59 from two different tables in the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 

Rb/Sr Age Dating Summary

Average

1,905

42,639

Maximum

11,657

218,042

Minimum

134

-15,716

Difference

11,523

233,758

Table 31

 

Below we can see the maximum ages obtained from the second table.  The oldest age is 18 times older than the Big Bang explosion. It is sixty two times older than the so called age of the Earth.

 

87Rb/86Sr, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

218,042

45,207

64,770

38,581

54,457

26,113

48,074

17,246

45,734

11,813

Table 32

 

Strontium, Neodymium and Lead Isotopic

According to the article 60 this specimen was dated in 1988 by scientists from the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. Carnegie Institution of Washington. Throughout the article the author admits that the dates are contradicting and unreliable: “For sample 7541. the apatite eclogite, the range observed in both Rh/Sr and Sm/Nd for the whole-rock and mineral separates is quite small resulting in very imprecise "ages" of 400 Ma for Rb-Sr and 1110 Ma for Sm-Nd.61 If we run the Lead isotope ratios 62 from the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 


 

Pb 207/206 Age Dating Summary

Age

Age

4,933

4,928

4,961

4,956

4,952

4,947

4,952

4,957

4,942

4,927

4,978

4,952

4,940

4,954

4,947

 

Table 33

 

 

Sr, Nd, and Os Isotope Geochemistry

According to the article 63 this specimen [Camp Creek area, Arizona] was dated in 1987 by scientists from The University of Tennessee, the University of Michigan, the University of California, Leeds University, and the University of Chicago. According to the article 64 the age of the samples is 120 million years. If we run the various isotope ratios 65 from two different tables in the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 

Rb/Sr and Sm/Nd Age Dating Summary

Summary

87Rb/86Sr

87Rb/86Sr

147Sm/144Nd

147Sm/144Nd

Average

310

103

120

159

Maximum

1,092

207

123

400

Minimum

0

0

120

119

Difference

1,092

207

3

281

Table 34

 

The author’s choice of 120 million years is just a guess.

 

Pb, Nd and Sr Isotopic Geochemistry

According to the article 66 this specimen [Bellsbank kimberlite, South Africa] was dated in 1991 by scientists from the University Of Rochester, New York, Guiyang University in China, and the United States Geological Survey, Colorado. According to the article 67 the age of the samples is just 1 million years. If we run the various isotope ratios 68 from two different tables in the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

 

Age Dating Summary

Table

207Pb/206Pb

206Pb/238U

208Pb/232Th

87Rb/86Sr

Summaries

Age

Age

Age

Age

Average

5,057

5,092

10,182

-1,502

Maximum

5,120

8,584

17,171

0

Minimum

5,002

0

0

-3,593

Difference

118

8,584

17,171

3,593

Table 35

 

In tables 36 to 39 we can see some of the astounding spread of dates [million of years]. The oldest date is over 17 billion years old. The youngest is less than negative 3.5 billion years. The difference between the two is over 20 billion years. According to the article the true age of the rock is just one million years old!

 


 

208Pb/232Th, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

17,171

13,322

9,737

7,968

15,343

13,202

9,707

7,830

15,299

13,001

9,049

7,250

15,136

11,119

8,420

6,972

15,054

10,873

8,419

6,628

13,476

10,758

8,368

6,577

Table 36

 

206Pb/238U, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

8,584

6,656

5,576

7,975

6,654

5,520

7,314

6,518

5,285

7,184

6,448

5,159

6,861

5,758

5,099

Table 37

 

Pb 207/206, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

5,120

5,067

5,060

5,049

5,109

5,066

5,059

5,045

5,097

5,066

5,051

5,044

5,077

5,065

5,050

5,044

5,067

5,062

5,050

5,033

5,067

5,060

5,050

5,022

Table 38

 

87Rb/86Sr, Minimum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

-3,593

-2,981

-1,917

-1,323

-3,231

-2,725

-1,611

-1,245

-3,089

-2,050

-1,499

-1,229

-3,067

-1,926

-1,370

-1,194

Table 39

 

Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes

According to the article 68 this specimen [eastern China] was dated in 1992 by scientists from the University Of Rochester, New York, Guiyang University in China, and the United States Geological Survey, Colorado. According to the article: “Observed high Th/U, Rb/Sr, 87Sr/86 Sr and Delta 208, low Sm/Nd ratios, and a large negative Nd in phlogopite pyroxenite with a depleted mantle model age of 2.9 Ga, support our contention that metasomatized continental lower mantle lithosphere is the source for the EMI component.” 68 If we run the various isotope ratios 69 from two different tables in the article through Isoplot we get the following values respectively:

 


 

Age Dating Summary

Dating

232Th/208Pb

206Pb/238U

207Pb/206Pb

Summaries

Age

Age

Age

Average

14,198

7,366

5,014

Maximum

94,396

22,201

5,077

Minimum

79

1,117

4,945

Difference

94,317

21,083

131

Table 40

 

If the true age is 2.9 billion years why so much discordance? In tables 41 to 43 we can see some of the astounding spread of dates [million of years]. The oldest date is over 94 billion years old. The youngest is 79 million years. The difference between the two is over 94 billion years. The oldest date is 1,194 times older than the youngest. According to the article the true age of the rock is 2.9 billion years old!

 

 

208Pb/232Th, Maximum Ages


Age

Age

Age

Age

94,396

39,267

10,595

8,171

90,683

26,266

10,284

7,789

74,639

18,334

9,328

7,638

58,153

16,357

8,821

7,375

55,324

14,250

8,771

7,317

45,242

11,215

8,403

5,759

Table 41

 

206Pb/238U, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

22,201

9,878

7,348

5,746

21,813

9,656

7,335

5,700

19,320

9,054

7,249

5,218

16,656

8,242

7,202

5,201

16,200

8,044

7,019

5,163

14,748

7,996

6,923

5,159

13,607

7,590

6,848

5,099

11,256

7,422

6,292

4,812

Table 42

 

Production of Jurassic Rhyolite

According to the article 70 this specimen [Patagonia, South America] was dated in 1994 by scientists from the British Antarctic Survey, National University, Argentina. According to the article: “Primary magmas of andesitic composition were generated by partial melting of mafic" Grenvillian" lower crust, indentified by depleted-mantle model ages of 1150-1600 Ma.70 If we run the various isotope ratios 71 from two different tables in the article through Microsoft Excel we get the following values respectively:

Rb/Sr Age Dating Summary

Average

432

Maximum

17,387

Minimum

-4,633

Difference

22,020

Table 43

Evolution of Reunion Hotspot Mantle

According to the article 72 this specimen [Reunion and Mauritius Islands] was dated in 1995 by scientists from the University of Hawaii. According to the article: “Whole-rock powder obtained from P. Krishnamurthy. (87Sr/86 Sr), and em(T) are age-corrected values; T = 66 Ma for the drill hole lavas.” 73 If we run the various isotope ratios 74 from two different tables in the article through Isoplot we get the following values respectively:

 

Age Dating Summary

Table

232Th/208Pb

206Pb/238U

207Pb/206Pb

Summaries

Age

Age

Age

Average

8,079

4,449

4,976

Maximum

13,287

6,285

5,016

Minimum

5,641

3,010

4,953

Difference

7,646

3,276

63

Table 44

 

208Pb/232Th, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

13,287

8,725

7,363

6,540

11,832

8,609

7,362

6,479

11,017

7,541

7,080

6,323

10,357

7,517

7,017

5,660

9,101

7,446

6,679

5,641

Table 45

 

206Pb/238U, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

6,285

4,903

4,141

3,875

6,165

4,633

4,133

3,647

5,767

4,342

4,011

3,548

5,553

4,258

4,001

3,369

5,152

4,220

3,973

3,010

Table 46

 

According to dating charts in the article, the true age is just 66 million years old! 74

 

An Extremely Low U/Pb Source

According to the article 75 this specimen [lunar meteorite] was dated in 1993 by scientists from the United States Geological Survey, Colorado, the United States Geological Survey, California and The National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo. According to the article: “The Pb-Pb internal isochron obtained for acid leached residues of separated mineral fractions yields an age of 3940 ± 28 Ma, which is similar to the U-Pb (3850 ± 150 Ma) and Th-Pb (3820 ± 290 Ma) internal isochron ages. The Sm-Nd data for the mineral separates yield an internal isochron age of 3871 ± 57 Ma and an initial 143Nd/I44Nd value of 0.50797 ± 10. The Rb-Sr data yield an internal isochron age of 3840 ± 32 Ma.” 75

 

Rb/Sr Age Dating Summary

Average

3,619

Maximum

5,385

Minimum

721

Difference

4,664

Table 47

 

Uranium Age Dating Summary

Table

207Pb/206Pb

206Pb/238U

208Pb/232Th

207Pb/235U

Summaries

Age

Age

Age

Age

Average

4,673

8,035

10,148

4,546

Maximum

5,018

56,923

65,286

8,128

Minimum

3,961

1,477

2,542

2,784

Difference

1,057

55,445

62,744

5,344

Table 48

 

The article claims that the Rb/Sr age is 3.8 billion years for this meteorite. If that is the true age why are all the Uranium/Thorium/Lead dates 76 so stupid? Or are they right and the Rb/Sr is wrong?

 

208Pb/232Th, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

65,286

14,430

9,094

5,401

33,898

14,410

6,520

5,396

25,013

13,107

6,166

5,365

22,178

12,738

6,121

5,098

21,204

11,641

5,671

5,035

17,611

11,174

5,408

4,678

Table 49

 

206Pb/238U, Maximum Ages

Age

Age

Age

Age

56,923

10,895

6,764

5,777

27,313

10,278

6,670

5,625

17,873

9,653

6,449

5,602

13,680

8,009

6,436

5,278

13,623

7,395

6,070

5,147

Table 50

 

The 72 Ma Geochemical Evolution

According to the article 77 this specimen [Madeira Archipelago] was dated in 2000 by scientists from Germany. The average Lead date is 705 times older than the average Rubidium date. The true age is claimed to be 430 million years old. 77 If we run the various isotope ratios 78 from two different tables in the article through Isoplot we get the following values respectively:

 

Age Dating Summary

Table

207Pb/206Pb

87Rb/86Sr

147Sm/144Nd

Summaries

Age

Age

Age

Average