A Creationist Assessment of Sexual Databases

Paul Nethercott

 

www.CreationismOnline.com

September 2016

 

Evolutionists claim that sexual reproduction evolved from asexual reproduction into the modern array of types we see in complex multi cellular organisms we see today. If this was true we would expect so see that animals of a common descent have the same types and the distribution of techniques in nature lines up with the evolutionary tree of life. As far as identical types of very complex sexual processes arising independently would be impossible. Imagine two teams of engineers independently designing two identical Chevrolet Corvettes or two identical Microsoft Windows. The chances are far too remote to happen in even in trillions of years.

 

Creationists have long pointed out (Harrub 2004a, 2004b) that the origin of sex like the origin of other complex organs is impossible. One way that has not been demonstrated before by creationist literature is the problem of immense homoplasy. Numerous phyla/orders with no evolutionary relationship have identical or nearly identical methods. The probability of so many arising independently is just zero. Another problem not listed by creationist literature is the huge array of methods. The sixty nine plant families with have not two (Tree Of Sex, Plants, 2015, Column N) but forty sexes!

 

Diversity of Sexual Determination Systems

Leo Beukeboom’s book (2014a) The Evolution of Sex Determination has an online database (2014b) with nineteen sexual features in nine kingdoms and 75 phyla. Half of the nineteen features are the opposite of the other half which rules out common ancestry for all of them. There are 974 overlaps in the systems of various phyla and kingdoms. The probability of them arising independently dozens of times by chance is zero

 

Table 1. Nineteen sexual systems nine phyla.

System

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Totals

A

8

 

 

7

3

6

 

 

1

25

B

17

2

 

6

6

 

2

2

1

36

C

1

2

86

 

7

1

 

 

 

97

D

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

E

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

2

F

7

2

 

6

6

2

3

2

2

30

G

6

 

 

2

4

7

 

 

 

19

H

23

 

86

1

9

 

 

 

 

119

I

1

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

7

J

 

 

 

 

2

4

1

 

 

7

K

24

2

 

15

9

6

2

2

2

62

L

10

1

85

 

7

1

 

 

 

104

M

22

 

56

12

13

5

2

1

2

113

N

21

1

42

7

9

3

1

1

1

86

O

20

 

69

2

9

6

 

 

 

106

P

22

 

35

3

8

2

 

 

 

70

Q

16

 

 

7

4

3

1

 

1

32

R

26

 

 

12

8

1

1

 

2

50

S

1

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

2

Totals

232

10

459

89

104

47

13

8

12

974

Kingdoms: 1. Archaeplastida, 2. Excavata, 3. Animals, 4. Fungi, 5. Stramenopiles, 6. Alveolates, 7. Rhizaria, 8. Hacrobia, 9. Amoebozoa. Systems: A. haplontic. B. haplo-diplontic. C. Diplontic. D. subdiplontic cycles (very limited and non-independent gametophyte). E. Haplodiplointic but with prolonged dikaryotic or heterokaryotic phase (zygotic meiosis). F. Isogamous. G. Anisogamous. H. Oogamous. I. Somatogamy. J. Gamontogamy. K. haploid stage. L. diploid stage. M. genotypic. N. Epigenetic. O. Unisexual: one single individual gametophyte (under haploid SD) or sprophyte (under diploid SD) produces either male or female gametes, but not both. P. Cosexual: the same individual gametophyte (under haploid SD) or sporophyte (under diploid SD) can produce both male and female gametes. Q. homothallic; mating can occur between genetically identical gametes originating from the same meiotic spore, resulting in a completely homozygous zygote.  R. heterothallic; mating is prevented between genetically identical gametes originating from the same meiotic spore. (Beukeboom, 2014b)

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2. Sexual systems that contain more than one phyla

System

Kingdom

Phyla

System

Kingdom

Phyla

AFGHKMNOPQR

Archaeplastida

Chlorophyceae

CHLMNOP

Animals

Arthropoda

 

Stramenopiles

Xanthophyceae

 

Animals

Echinodermata

AFKMNQR

Archaeplastida

Zygnematophyceae

 

Animals

Chordata

 

Amoebozoa

Mycetozoa

 

Stramenopiles

Phaeophyceae

AFKMR

Archaeplastida

Prasinophyceae

CHLMO

Animals

Sipuncula

 

Archaeplastida

Ulvophyceae

 

Animals

Pogonophora

 

Stramenopiles

Synurophyceae

 

Animals

Rotifers

 

Stramenopiles

Chrysophyceae

 

Animals

Onychophora

AHKMNOPQR

Archaeplastida

Chlorophyceae

 

Animals

Arthropoda

 

Archaeplastida

Coleochaetophyceae

 

Animals

Echinodermata

 

Archaeplastida

Charophyceae

 

Animals

Chordata

BFKM

Rhizaria

Cercozoa

CHLNO

Animals

Echiura

 

Hacrobia

Haptophyta

 

Animals

Chordata

BFKMR

Archaeplastida

Ulvophyceae

 

Stramenopiles

Diatoms

 

Fungi

Dikarya

CHLNP

Animals

Porifera

 

Stramenopiles

Phaeophyceae

 

Animals

Ctenaria

 

Amoebozoa

Mycetozoa

 

Animals

Annelida

BGKMOR

Archaeplastida

Florideophyceae

 

Animals

Mollusca

 

Archaeplastida

Ulvophyceae

 

Animals

Entoprocta

 

Stramenopiles

Phaeophyceae

 

Animals

Bryozoa

BHKMNOPQR

Archaeplastida

Hepatophyta

 

Animals

Gnathostomulida

 

Archaeplastida

Bryophyta

 

Animals

Gastrotricha

 

Stramenopiles

Phaeophyceae

 

Animals

Platyhelminthes

BHKNPQ

Archaeplastida

Anthocerophyta

 

Animals

Arthropoda

 

Archaeplastida

Lycophyta

 

Animals

Chaetognatha

 

Stramenopiles

Phaeophyceae

 

Animals

Chordata

BHLNPR

Archaeplastida

Lycophyta

 

Stramenopiles

Oomycota

 

Archaeplastida

Monilophyta

CHLO

Animals

Placozoa

CHLMNO

Animals

Arthropoda

 

Animals

Mollusca

 

Animals

Chordata

 

Animals

Brachiopods

CHLMNOP

Animals

Cnidaria

 

Animals

Nematomorpha

 

Animals

Annelida

 

Animals

Priapulida

 

Animals

Mollusca

 

Animals

Loricifera

 

Animals

Phoronida

 

Animals

Kinorhyncha

 

Animals

Nemertea

 

Animals

Hemichordata

 

Animals

Platyhelminthes

DHLMNOPR

Archaeplastida

Gymnosperms

 

Animals

Tardigrade

 

Archaeplastida

Angiosperms

 

Animals

Nematode

 

 

 

(Beukeboom, 2014b)

 

Another problem for evolutionists [Tables 2 and 3] is that you cannot arrange them in a phylogenetic tree.


 

Table 3. Phyla that contain more than one sexual system

Kingdom

Phyla

System

Kingdom

Phyla

System

Animals

Annelida

CHLMNOP

Fungi

Microsporidia

AKNQ

 

 

CHLNP

 

 

BKMR

Alveolates

Apicomplexa

AFGJKMO

Animals

Mollusca

CHLMNOP

 

 

AGJKMO

 

 

CHLNP

 

 

AGKNOQ

 

 

CHLO

Animals

Arthropoda

CHLMNO

Archaeplastida

Monilophyta

BHKLNOPQR

 

 

CHLMNOP

 

 

BHKNOPQ

 

 

CHLMO

 

 

BHKNOPQR

 

 

CHLNP

 

 

BHLNPR

Animals

Chordata

CHLMNO

Amoebozoa

Mycetozoa

AFKMNQR

 

 

CHLMNOP

 

 

BFKMR

 

 

CHLMO

Stramenopiles

Phaeophyceae

BFKMR

 

 

CHLNO

 

 

BGKMOR

 

 

CHLNP

 

 

BHKMNOPQR

Fungi

Chytridiomycota

AFIKMOR

 

 

BHKMOR

 

 

AHKNPQ

 

 

BHKNPQ

 

 

BFGKMNOPQR

 

 

CHLMNOP

Stramenopiles

Diatoms

CFGJLMO

Animals

Platyhelminthes

CHLMNOP

 

 

CFJLMN

 

 

CHLNP

 

 

CHLNO

Animals

Rotifera

CH

Fungi

Dikarya

BFKMNQR

 

 

CHLMO

 

 

BFKMR

Archaeplastida

Ulvophyceae

AFKMR

 

 

EGIKMNPQR

 

 

BFKMR

 

 

EIKMR

 

 

BGKMOR

Animals

Echinodermata

CHLMNOP

 

 

DFKMR

 

 

CHLMO

Archaeplastida

Zygnematophyceae

AFGIKMNOPQR

Archaeplastida

Gymnosperms

DHLMNOPR

 

 

AFKMNQR

 

 

DHLMOR

Fungi

Zygomycota

AIKMNQR

Excavata

Heterolobosea

BFK

 

 

AIKMR

 

 

BK

 

 

 

Archaeplastida

Lycophyta

BHKNPQ

 

 

 

 

 

BHLNPR

 

 

 

(Beukeboom, 2014b)

 

The Tree of Sex consortium (Bachtrog, 2014, 2015, Ashman 2014) has an online database of 40,000 species in three phyla (plants, insects and vertebrates). If we look at table 4 we can see that there are nine main reproductive systems in fourteen

major groups of organisms. Many reproductive systems overlap different totally unrelated groups. Hermaphrodite procreation exists in all three phyla. Considering the complexity of DNA the chances of identical systems arising independently is zero.

 


 

Table 4. Diversity of sex determination systems

Sub-Phyla

Groups

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

Aves

Birds

 

B

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mammals

Placental, marsupial, monotremes

A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reptiles

Turtles, snakes, crocodiles, lizards

A

B

C

D

E

 

 

 

 

Amphibians

Frogs, toads, salamanders

A

B

C

 

 

 

 

 

 

Teleost

Bony fishes

A

B

C

D

E

 

 

 

 

Acari

Mites and ticks

A

 

 

 

 

F

G

 

 

Crustacea

Shrimps, barnacles, crabs

A

B

C

D

 

 

 

 

 

Coleoptera

Beetles

A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coccoidea

Scale insects

A

 

C

D

 

F

G

 

 

Hymenoptera

Ants, bees, and wasps

 

 

 

 

 

F

 

 

 

Lepidoptera

Butterflies

 

B

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diptera

Flies

A

 

C

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gymnosperms

Non-flowering plants

 

 

 

 

 

F

 

H

 

Angiosperms

Flowering plants

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

H

I

A. XO, XY, complex XY, B. ZO, ZW, complex ZW, C. Homomorphic, D. Hermaphrodites, E. ESD, F. Haplo-Diploids, G. Paternal Genome Elimination, H. Monoecy, I. Dioecy. (Bachtrog, 2014)

 

In table five we can see three more phyla (nematodes, molluscs and annelids) and four more sexual systems. The XY system is present in five phyla and the XO and ZW systems are present in four phyla.

 

Table 5. Thirteen sexual systems ten phyla/sub phyla

Phyla

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

Total

Arthropods

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

 

12

Fish

 

B

 

D

E

F

 

 

I

 

K

L

M

8

Amphibians

 

B

 

 

E

F

 

 

I

 

K

L

M

7

Reptiles

 

B

 

D

E

 

 

 

I

 

 

L

 

5

Mammals

 

B

 

 

 

F

 

 

I

 

 

L

 

4

Birds

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

L

 

2

Nematodes

 

 

 

 

 

F

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Molluscs

 

 

 

 

 

F

 

 

I

 

 

L

M

4

Plants

 

B

 

 

E

 

 

 

I

 

 

L

 

4

Annelids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

 

 

 

 

1

Total

1

6

1

4

5

6

1

1

8

1

3

8

3

 

A. complex XO, B. complex XY, C. complex XY | homomorphic, D. complex ZW, E. homomorphic, F. XO, G. XO | homomorphic, H. XO|XY, I. XY, J. XY | homomorphic, K. ZO, L. ZW, M. WO.

(Tree of sex, 2015, Plants, Vertebrates, Invertebrates, Avise, 2004, Thiriot, 2003, Hodgkin, 1986, Tosuji, 2004)

 

 

Arthropod Sexuality

An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages (paired appendages). Arthropods form the phylum Arthropoda, which includes the insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. Estimates of the number of arthropod species vary between 1,170,000 and 5 to 10 million and account for over 80% of all known living animal species.

 

If we add two more factors to table 4 (number of female and male chromosomes) we get a three level (System-Female-Male) view of molecular homology (Table 6). Invertebrates have 13 sexual systems, males have 1 to 381 chromosomes (380) and females have 2 to 192 chromosomes (190) giving 938,600 (= 13 x 380 x 190) combinations. Vertebrates have 8 sexual systems, males have 1 to 475 chromosomes (474) and females have 1 to 184 chromosomes (183) giving 69 thousand combinations. The chances of have one species in both phyla with identical systems is one in 65 billion. If we look in table 7 we can see that some families overlap between two (probability = 4.31 x 10-21) to ten systems (probability = 1.49 x 10-108).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 6. Three level system of sexuality

Phyla 

System

Males

Females

Total

Invertebrates

13

380

190

938,600

Vertebrates

8

94

93

69,936

Total

21

474

183

65,641,929,600

(Tree Of Sex, Vertebrates, Invertebrates, 2015)

 

Table 7. Identical [Three Level] sex determination systems in vertebrates and insects

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

A

f

 

f

 

 

 

 

f

f

 

 

 

f

 

 

B

hijkm

jm

 

 

h

j

 

 

h

 

hijk

 

 

 

 

C

fhklm

m

f

 

h

 

 

f

fh

 

hkl

 

f

 

l

D

cfghijkl

cj

f

c

h

j

c

cdf

fgh

cd

ghijkl

 

f

d

l

E

ejk

ej

 

 

 

j

e

e

e

 

jk

 

 

 

 

F

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

G

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

l

 

 

 

l

H

hjlm

jm

 

 

h

j

 

 

h

 

hjl

 

 

 

l

I

m

m

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J

bc

c

c

bc

 

 

c

bcd

b

bcd

 

b

 

d

 

K

f

 

f

 

 

 

 

f

f

 

 

 

f

 

 

L

i

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

i

 

 

 

 

M

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

l

 

 

 

l

N

jm

jm

 

 

 

j

 

 

 

 

j

 

 

 

 

O

cefghijklm

cejm

f

c

h

j

ce

cdef

efgh

cd

ghijkl

 

f

d

l

P

cefhijklm

cejm

f

c

h

j

ce

cdef

efh

cd

hijkl

 

f

d

l

Q

c

c

 

c

 

 

c

c

 

c

 

 

 

 

 

Insects: 1. Coleoptera, 2. Dermaptera, 3. Diptera, 4. Ephemeroptera, 5. Grylloblattodea, 6. Mantodea, 7. Megaloptera, 8. Neuroptera, 9. Odonata, 10. Orthoptera, 11. Phasmatodea, 12. Psocoptera, 13. Raphidioptera, 14. Siphonaptera, 15. Zoraptera. Vertebrates: A. Anura, B. Carnivores, C. Cetartiodactyla, D. Chiroptera, E. Cyprinodontiformes, F. Diprotodonts, G. Gymnotiformes, H. Insectivora, I. Lagomorpha, J. Marsupials, K. Perciformes, L. Perissodactyla, M. Pleuronectiformes, N. Primates, O. Rodents, P. Squamata, Q. Tubulidentata. Systems: a. Complex XY-16-15, b. XY-16-16, c. XY-18-18, d. XY-22-22, e. XY-24-24, f. XY-26-26, g. XY-28-28, h. XY-30-30, i. XY-32-32, j. XY-34-34, k. XY-36-36, l. XY-38-38, m. XY-40-40. (Tree Of Sex, Vertebrates, Invertebrates, 2015)


 

Table 8. Number of species that overlap and probability of overlaps (10-x)

Systems

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

Overlaps

a

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

b

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

c

 

 

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

d

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

e

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

f

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

h

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

i

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

1

j

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

2

m

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

bc

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

cd

 

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

ce

 

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

cj

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

ej

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

fh

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

jk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

2

jm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

8

8

bcd

 

6

6

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

cdf

 

 

3

3

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

efh

 

 

 

 

3

3

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

3

ejk

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

3

3

 

 

3

fgh

 

 

 

 

 

3

3

3

 

 

 

 

 

3

hjl

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

3

 

3

 

3

hkl

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

3

3

 

3

cdef

 

 

8

8

8

8